The Dental caries process is a small patch of softened enamel at the tooth surface, often hidden from sight in the grooves of teeth or in between the teeth. The destruction spreads into the softer, sensitive part of the tooth beneath the enamel (dentine). The weakened enamel then collapses to form a cavity and the tooth is progressively destroyed. Caries can also attack the roots of teeth should they become exposed by gum re-cession. Dental caries is caused by the action of acids on the enamel surface.The acid produced leads to a loss of calcium and phosphate from the enamel; this process is called demineralisation.When demineralisation occurs frequently and exceeds over many months, there is a breakdown of the enamel surface leading to a cavity. The main treatment option for a tooth cavity is to drill out the decay and put in a filling (restoration) made from various materials (e.g., composite resins, amalgam, GI filling, Lutting etc.).Extensive tooth decay may necessitate a crown, root canal treatment.